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Utah Science

Curriculum Consortium

Tyson Grover 

tgrover@dsdmail.net

Annette Nielson

afonnesbeck@dsdmail.net

4.2 Strand

Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another causing the objects’ motions to change. Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electrical currents, heat, sound, or light. Devices can be designed to convert energy from one form to another.
 
STORYLINE: 4.2.1 & 4.2.2 Transferring Energy

Standard  4.2.1: Construct an explanation to describe the cause and effect relationship between the speed of an object and the energy of that object. Emphasize using qualitative descriptions of the relationship between speed and energy like fast, slow, strong, or weak. An example could include a ball that is kicked hard has more energy and travels a greater distance than a ball that is kicked softly. (PS3.A)


Standard 4.2.2: Ask questions and make observations about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide. Emphasize that energy is transferred when objects collide and may be converted to different forms of energy. Examples could include changes in speed when one moving ball collides with another or the transfer of energy when a toy car hits a wall. (PS3.B, PS3.C)

Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems. 

∙ Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design solution.

 

Asking Questions and Defining Problems in grades 3–5 builds on grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.

  • Ask questions that can be investigated based on patterns such as cause and effect relationships.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses.

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer 

Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their

Cross Cutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested, and used to explain change.


Stability and Change

Small changes in one part of a system might cause large changes in another part.

Phenomena Statement

When I roll a tennis ball against a wall, it bounces back and I can control how far it goes.

Storyline Narrative

Students investigate the effects of the amount of energy a tennis ball has and the distance it rolls. To investigate, students take turns rolling tennis balls at different speeds to measure the distance traveled to observe that adding more energy to the tennis ball allows it to travel farther. Then students explore the concept of energy as it is related to speed by shooting a rubber band at a paper cube to move it. To explore, students play marbles to solidify the concept that the faster an object moves, the more energy is transferred into the object with which it has collided causing it to move farther away, students will understand how energy can be transformed into other forms like the sound the marbles make upon impact. Students elaborate by planning and carrying out an investigation to show how the amount of energy in a moving object causes another object to be knocked down when they collide. Students will gain an understanding that outside forces can impact energy transfer. Finally, students evaluate their thinking by using what they have learned to ask questions and develop models of collisions and how energy is transferred. 

 
STORYLINE: 4.2.3 & 4.2.4 Using Energy

Standard(s) 4.2.3: Plan and carry out an investigation to gather evidence from observations that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electrical currents. Examples could include sound causing objects to vibrate and electric currents being used to produce motion or light. (PS3.A, PS3.B)


Standard 4.2.4: Design a device that converts energy from one form to another. Define the problem, identify criteria and constraints, develop possible solutions using models, analyze data from testing solutions, and propose modifications for optimizing a solution. Emphasize identifying the initial and final forms of energy. Examples could include solar ovens that convert light energy to heat energy or a simple alarm system that converts motion energy into sound energy. (PS3.B, PS3.D, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)

Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions. 

  • Make observations and/or measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon.

 

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems. 

Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design solution.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy 

  • Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or electric currents. 

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer 

  • Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced. 

  • Light also transfers energy from place to place. 

  • Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy.

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life 

  • The expression “produce energy” typically refers to the conversion of stored energy into a desired form for practical use.

COMING SOON

Cross Cutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects. Energy can be converted from one form to another.

Phenomena Statement

Phenomenon statement. 

Storyline Narrative