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Utah Science

Curriculum Consortium

Tyson Grover 

tgrover@dsdmail.net

Annette Nielson

afonnesbeck@dsdmail.net

4.3 Strand

Waves are regular patterns of motion that transfers energy and have properties such as amplitude (height of the wave) and wavelength (spacing between wave peaks). Waves in water can be directly observed. Light waves cause objects to be seen when light reflected from objects enters the eye. Humans use waves and other patterns to transfer information.
STORYLINE: 4.3.1 Waves

Standard(s) 4.3.1: Develop and use a model to describe the regular patterns of waves. Emphasize patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength. Examples of models could include diagrams, analogies, and physical models such as water or rope. (PS4.A)

Practices

Developing and Using Models: Modeling in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to building and revising simple models and using models to represent events and design solutions.

 

  • Develop a model using an analogy, example, or abstract representation to describe a scientific principle.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses.

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer 

Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their

Cross Cutting Concepts

Patterns

Similarities and differences in patterns can be used to sort, classify, and analyze simple rates of change for natural phenomena

Phenomena Statement

 One of my favorite things to do in the summer is to wait for a lake to calm down and then throw a rock as far as I can and watch its ripple/wave.

Storyline Narrative

To begin the 4.3.1 storyline, students are presented with the phenomenon of a ripple on a calm lake. Students engage with the phenomenon by asking questions. They then explore by investigating what affects a ripple/wave. Students then develop a model of patterns in waves. Then students explain further by obtaining information from a video about the net motion of a wave. They learn that a wave transfers energy, not matter. They revise their model to add the new information obtained. Students then elaborate by designing a model for regular wave patterns using a jump rope. Students will define the criteria for a successful model and the constraints for their model. Students will then evaluate their model according to the criteria they identified.

STORYLINE: 4.3.2 Light

Standard(s) 4.3.2: Develop and use a model to describe how visible light waves reflected from objects enter the eye causing objects to be seen. Emphasize the reflection and movement of light. The structure and function of organs and organ systems and the relationship between color and wavelength will be taught in Grades 6 through 8. (PS4.B)

Practices

Developing and Using Models: Modeling in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to building and revising simple models and using models to represent events and design solutions.

 

  • Develop a model using an example to describe phenomena.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified.

Phenomena Statement

I cannot see the color of your shirt in a dark room.

Storyline Narrative

To begin our 4.3.2 storyline, students are presented with the phenomena that we need can’t see an object without light. To obtain information, students engage in and explore in an investigation to determine how much light is needed to identify the object in the ‘dark.’ Through observation, students argue from evidence to explain that objects can only be seen with light. This will lead them to question the cause of light reflecting off other objects. Students then explore reflection by gathering more information about the cause of the pattern of reflection off different materials. Students will plan and carry out an investigation, then model their findings of which objects are more reflective. This will lead students to question, why do we see a reflection of ourselves or another object? Students ask questions and define the cause and effect of reflection when light is seen reflecting from water to under a bridge in waves. They elaborate their findings on reflection by planning and investigating light reflecting off several mirrors and discover the cause and effect of seeing objects that are not in front of you, but can be seen. Students construct explanations about the cause of light reflecting off the mirror and hitting all mirrors. Students will be evaluated while they plan and carry out an investigation while developing a model to a solution to create light to go around and be seen around the corner using mirrors. Students develop an argument for how the evidence you gathered supports the explanation that light can be seen around corners, specifically when the light source is on the other side of the wall.

STORYLINE: 4.3.3 Communicating with Patterns

Standard(s) 4.3.3: Design a solution to an information transfer problem using wave patterns. Define the problem, identify criteria and constraints, develop possible solutions using models, analyze data from testing solutions, and propose modifications for optimizing a solution. Examples could include using light to transmit a message in Morse code or using lenses and mirrors to see objects that are far away. (PS4.C, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)

Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems. 

∙ Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design solution.

 

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation

Digitized information can be transmitted over long distances without significant degradation. High-tech devices, such as computers or cell phones, can receive and decode information—convert it from digitized form to voice—and vice versa.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Patterns 

Similarities and differences in patterns can be used to sort and classify designed products.

Phenomena Statement

When I roll a tennis ball against a wall, it bounces back and I can control how far it goes.

Storyline Narrative

Students are presented with the phenomenon that messages can be sent in patterns of light, called code. Students obtain information about real world codes using patterns of light. Students engage in designing a code to send to another student, using light patterns. The students model and explain their design solution. This will lead them to question if there are other means to send messages? Students use their models of light patterns to expand their understanding by arguing from the evidence how their model can be used with other means (eg. using their light patterns and change the patterns to tapping, hand signals, or something else of their choice.) Finally, students evaluate their understanding by using their conceptual models to explain patterns in code. They will next be presented with a message (or song) tapped on the tabletop. They will connect this information to their previous understanding that light has patterns in code.