6.2  Strand

Matter and energy are fundamental components of the universe. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Transfer of energy creates change in matter. Changes between gen- eral states of matter can occur through the transfer of energy. Density describes how closely matter is packed together. Substances with a higher density have more matter in a given space than substances with a lower density. Changes in heat energy can alter the density of a material. Insulators resist the transfer of heat energy, while conductors easily transfer heat energy. These differences in energy flow can be used to design products to meet the needs of society.
STORYLINE: 6.2.1 & 6.2.2 Energy Affects Matter

Standard(s) 6.2.1 & 6.2.2

6.2.1: Develop models to show that molecules are made of different kinds, proportions, and quantities of atoms. Emphasize understanding that there are differences between atoms and molecules, and that certain combinations of atoms form specific molecules. Examples of simple molecules could include water (H2O), atmospheric oxygen (O2), or carbon dioxide (CO2). (PS1.A)
NGSS Correlation: MS-PS1-1

6.2.2: Develop a model to predict the effect of heat energy on states of matter and density. Emphasize the arrangement of particles in states of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) and during phase changes (melting, freezing, condensing, and evaporating). (PS1.A, PS3.A)

NGSS Correlation: MS-PS1-4

Practices

Developing and Using Models

  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

  • Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms.

  • Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with repeating subunits (e.g., crystals).

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter  

  • Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other. Widely spaced (gas), closely spaced (liquid), static (solid)    

  • The changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using these models of matter.

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy  

  • The term “heat” as used in everyday language refers both to thermal energy (the motion of atoms or molecules within a substance) and the transfer of that energy.

  • The temperature of a system is proportional to the average internal kinetic energy and potential energy per atom or molecule.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Proportion and Quantity

  • Time, space, and energy phenomena can be observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small.

Cause and Effect

  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.

Storyline Narrative


SEEd Standard 6.2.1 ask students to develop models to show that molecules are made of different kinds, proportions, and quantities of atoms.  To engage students in this storyline, students look for patterns by observing a system of a patch of grass, a blade of grass, blade of grass under a magnifying glass, and a blade of grass under a microscope. Students ask questions about what else could be going on in the blade of grass on a scale that is unobservable to the naked eye. Students reason that all living and nonliving things are made up of smaller particles that we can't see called atoms. Students read an article about atoms and molecules. Students discover by observing patterns and characteristics that certain combinations of atoms make up all the molecules that make up all matter. Students create models of different types of simple molecules as evidence that molecules are made of different types and quantities of atoms. Proportional reasoning is also emphasized. Students investigate the structure of the air that they breathe and ask is it the same year round? Students are left wondering how molecules are organized in the different states of matter that make up our world.

SEEd Standard 6.2.2 asks students to develop a model to predict the effect of heat energy on states of matter and density. Students should emphasize the arrangement of particles in each state of matter and during phase changes.

Students engage by observing solid, liquid, and gaseous substances to understand how the structure of the molecules in each state of matter determines many of its properties. Students classify substances into the different states of matter based on the behavior of the molecules in each substance. Students reason that the structure of the molecules in a substance determine its properties. Students ask questions about how substances can change from one state of matter to another. 

Students explore by observing patterns in a system in which energy is added to different states of matter. Students will develop models to show how energy changes the states of matter. Students are asked the question “what is heat?” As students construct explanations to describe heat, they are presented with a phenomenon of toothpicks connected by wax to a metal rod. 

Students are asked to explain what caused the toothpicks to drop off the spoon in order as a flame was held on the opposite end of the spoon. Students will model the movement of molecules in each part of the system when heat energy is added. Students learn that molecules are always moving and heat energy causes the molecules to move faster and collide with other molecules. This causes the molecules of a substance to spread out. 

Students then investigate and elaborate on how heat energy affects the density of substances. By observing hot water floating on cold water, students reason that heat energy causes the molecules of a substance to speed up and spread apart which will lower the density of that substance. Students ask questions about what happens when heat is removed from a system. Students are presented with a variety of systems in which heat energy is both added and removed, including melting, evaporating, condensing, and freezing.

Students are evaluated as they model heat energy as it flows in and out of each system to show that heat energy always flows from high energy to low energy and its effect on matter.

Phenomena Statement

 A volcano rapidly formed in a field in Paricutin.

STORYLINE: 6.2.3 & 6.2.4 Transfer of Heat Energy

Standard(s)

6.2.3: Plan and carry out an investigation to determine the relationship between temperature, the amount of heat transferred, and the change of average particle motion in various types or amounts of matter. Emphasize recording and evaluating data, and communicating the results of the investigation. (PS3.A)
NGSS Correlation: MS-PS3-4

6.2.4: Design an object, tool, or process that minimizes or maximizes heat energy transfer. Identify criteria and constraints, develop a prototype for iterative testing, analyze data from testing, and propose modifications for optimizing the design solution. Emphasize demonstrating how the structure of differing materials allows them to function as either conductors or insulators. (PS3.A, PS3.B, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)
NGSS Correlation: MS-PS3-3

Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

  • Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.

Designing Solutions

  • Apply scientific ideas or principles to design, construct, and test a design of an object, tool, process or system.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy  

  • Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer  

  • The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment.

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

  • Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms.

  • Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with repeating subunits (e.g., crystals).

Cross Cutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

  • Energy may take different forms (e.g. energy in fields, thermal energy, energy of motion).

  • The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system.

Structure and Function

  • Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.

Storyline Narrative

SEEd Standard 6.2.3 asks students to plan and carry out an investigation to determine the relationship between temperature, the amount of heat transferred, and the change in average particle motion in various types or amounts of matter. Students should record and evaluate their data and communicate the results of their investigation. 

 

SEEd 6.2.4 asks students to design an object, tool, or process that minimizes or maximizes heat energy transfer. Students will identify criteria and constraints, develop a prototype for iterative testing, analyze data from testing, and propose modifications for optimizing the design solution. Students should demonstrate how the structure of different materials allows them to function as either insulators or conductors. 

 

To engage, students will construct an explanation about which has more total heat energy, a pot of hot water or a cup of hot water. Students will discuss their ideas and the evidence behind those ideas. They will then explore this phenomena by planning and carrying out an investigation to determine the effect the amount of mass has on the change in temperature. Students will discover and explain that the more mass a substance has, the more total energy it has, and the temperature changes at a slower rate. 

 

Students will use this investigation and understanding of heat energy to analyze the system and argue from evidence what temperature is actually measuring. Students will argue that temperature is a measure of how fast the particles in a substance are moving. 

Phenomena Statement

Animals gather at lakes to drink water, but you don’t see animals drinking from the Great Salt Lake.