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Utah Science

Curriculum Consortium

Tyson Grover 

tgrover@dsdmail.net

Annette Nielson

afonnesbeck@dsdmail.net

Storyline Narrative 7.2.1 a

Note the different structure of this Storyline. Each episode has all 5 E's from the 5E Model. Each episode also has it's own assessment rather than a final

Storyline Narrative:

Students begin by asking questions about the cause for the pinnacle structures at Bryce Canyon and how matter and energy are related by making observations of hoodoos (pictures).  Students record questions in notebook.  After recording questions, students begin to build a conceptual model of sedimentary rocks and processes and gather evidence. There are several ways to accomplish this:  1.  Students make “shake jars:” with coarse (gravel), fine (sand) and extra fine (silt) sediments in a jar filled with water.  2.  Use a stream table to explore sediment transport and deposition. 3.  Use another model of earth sorting and density. Students develop a model to determine patterns of layering of earth materials and relate the role of energy in this process (deposition).  After recording model in science notebook, students investigate rock samples:  conglomerate, sandstone and shale. Students are introduced to limestone made of chemical particles and correlate the rock samples to the sediments in jar/stream table.

Next,  Student read about the cause of large scale fractures in rocks.  Students record information in notebooks about the causes of rock deformation in sedimentary and other rocks.  Students, then, work in small groups to design experiments to gather evidence to determine the effects of chemical and physical weathering on earth materials,  including,  acid tests on sedimentary rocks, freeze-thaw experiments on clay, etc.  Students collect evidence that chemicals weather rocks, as does water (ice-wedging/freeze-thaw cycles).  Students are now ready to begin reasoning how sedimentary process result in sedimentary rocks. Students use observations (data)  gathered during investigations to determine causes for sedimentary processes.  As a group, students more fully develop a model of a sedimentary system using evidence they have gathered on the relate the roles of energy flow and matter cycling to this system that results in the formation of sediments or sedimentary rocks. Finally, students use evidence and reasoning to construct an explanation  for the cause of the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon and cite how energy is flowing and matter is cycling throughout these processes.  Now, students are ready to learn about metamorphic systems!

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Episode 1

Engage

Question

How did the hoodoos form?

Snapshot

Students ask questions about the cause for the pinnacle structures at Bryce Canyon and how matter and energy are related by making observations of hoodoos (pictures).   

Conceptual Understandings

Rocks can undergo significant changes.  

What are sedimentary rocks?

How do they form?

What are sedimentary processes?

 

Explore

Question

How are sedimentary rocks formed?

What are the parts of sedimentary rock systems?

Snapshot

Part 1:Develop a Model

Students investigate the cause and effect of sedimentary processes and begin to develop a conceptual model of sedimentary rocks and processes  (weathering, deposition, sedimentation).

 

Part 2:  Plan and Carry Out an Investigation

Students  design experiments to gather evidence  to determine the effects of chemical and physical weathering on earth materials.  

Conceptual Understandings

Sedimentary rocks are made of sediments. Sediments settle out by grain size.  Larger sized sediments settle out first; smaller sediments last.  It take more energy to move larger sediments than smaller ones. Sedimentary processes include, weathering, erosion, deposition and sedimentation.

 

Rocks can break down through chemical and physical weathering. Sediments are small particles of a larger substance (rock).

Part 1: How do rocks break down?

 

Part 2: What causes rocks to break down on large scales?

Explain

Question

How are rocks changed over large scales?

Snapshot

Student read to obtain  about how layers of rocks and be pushed and pulled, resulting in fractured rocks.  Students use observations (data)  gathered during investigations to determine causes for sedimentary processes and begin constructing explanations.

Conceptual Understandings

Formation processes for sedimentary rocks:  sandstone, shale, limestone, conglomerate and how each relates to sedimentary processes.

How do sedimentary rocks show that matter is cycling and energy is flowing within a sedimentary system?

Elaborate

Question

How do sedimentary rocks show that matter is cycling and energy is flowing within a sedimentary system?

Snapshot

Students add to their  model of a sedimentary system using evidence they have gathered on the relate the roles of energy flow and matter cycling to this system that results in the formation of sediments or sedimentary rocks.

Conceptual Understandings

The sun provides energy for some sedimentary processes (weathering and erosion).  Gravity is the driver of deposition.  Sediments are cemented together by minerals. Sediments and minerals are constantly being recycled to make sediments for sedimentary rocks.  Evidence includes the density model used, size of particles in rocks, rock types.

What caused the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon to form?

Evaluate

Question

What caused the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon to form?

Snapshot

Students use evidence and reasoning to construct an explanation  for the cause of the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon and cite how energy is flowing and matter is cycling throughout these processes. Students can work in groups to organize evidence.

Conceptual Understandings

The hoodoos in Bryce Canyon are caused by changes to sedimentary rocks over time. Original sedimentary rock was laid down through deposition and resulted in layers upon layers of sedimentary rock.then, these rocks layers were fractured through tremendous stresses applied to them (plate tectonics). Finally,  over 200 freeze-thaw cycles a year crack and remove sedimentary rock from the vertical fractures.  Melting water and rain move the sediments out of the cracks and hoodoos are left behind!

 

Storyline Narrative:

Students ask questions about the cause for ribbons or bands in the rocks from the Farmington Canyon Complex  (pictures).  Students examine hand samples of  metamorphic rocks in small groups and record observations and determine patterns found in samples.  Students arrange rocks according to patterns they notice and propose a cause for the patterns. Next, Students read to find answers to their questions about how existing rocks can be changed (cause) into metamorphic rocks. Students record information in notebooks about the causes of rock deformation resulting in metamorphic rocks. Students also learn and record the names of metamorphic rocks and the cause for patterns in rocks (foliated and nonfoliated). Next, students analyze and discuss the geothermal gradient patterns and the implications for this on deformation of existing earth materials below Earth’s surface. Then, students use evidence gathered to develop a model of how the relationship between energy flowing and matter cycling create metamorphic rocks.  Models should include reasoning for deformation of earth materials. Finally, students use evidence and reasoning to construct an explanation  for the cause of the bands in the Farmington Canyon Complex rocks and  cite how energy is flowing and matter is cycling throughout these processes.

*Do not call the BANDS in the rock “layers.”  This is confusing to students and is not correct. Sedimentary rocks have layers; metamorphic rocks have mineral planes that are aligned and cause foliation and banding*

Episode 2

Engage

Question

What has caused the ribbons in the rocks?

Snapshot

Students ask questions about the cause for ribbons or bands in the rocks from the Farmington Canyon Complex.

Conceptual Understandings

Some rocks have wavy bands (NOT layers!!)

What are some patterns in rocks?

Explore

Question

What are observable patterns in metamorphic rocks?

Snapshot

Students examine hand samples of  metamorphic rocks in small groups( gneiss, quartzite, marble, schist, etc.).  Students record observations and determine patterns of mineral alignment found in samples.  

Conceptual Understandings

Metamorphic rocks can have minerals that are aligned (foliated) and minerals that are rearranged but not aligned (non-foliated)

What causes rock deformation? What are the parts of a metamorphic system?

Explain

Question

What causes rock deformation? What are the parts of a metamorphic system?

Snapshot

Students read to obtain information about how existing rocks can be changed (cause) into metamorphic rocks. Students record information in notebooks about the causes of rock deformation resulting in metamorphic rocks.

Conceptual Understandings

Heat and pressure from tectonic systems can change existing rock into “changed” rock.

What is the geothermal gradient  and how does it relate to metamorphic systems?

Elaborate

Question

What is the geothermal gradient  and how does it relate to metamorphic systems?

Snapshot

Students analyze and discuss the patterns in the data (geothermal gradient and pressure gradient) and the implications for this on deformation of existing earth materials below Earth’s surface.  Students use evidence gathered to develop a model of  how the relationship between energy flowing and mattering cycling create metamorphic rocks.  

Conceptual Understandings

The deeper down rock is in the Earth, the more heat and pressure can act on it and cause it to change.

What caused the bands in the FCC rocks?

Evaluate

Question

What caused the bands in the FCC rocks?

Snapshot

Students use evidence and reasoning to construct an explanation  for the cause of the bands in the Farmington Canyon Complex rocks and  cite how energy is flowing and matter is cycling throughout these processes..

Conceptual Understandings

The bands in the rocks in the FCC are caused by extreme heat and pressure acting on the minerals in old rocks that were once buried deep beneath the surface. Under heat, stress and pressure, minerals in rocks can realign into parallel patterns or they can change into new minerals.   The same matter is now a metamorphic rock, changed through heat flowing and pressure pushing on a parent rock to form a changed, or metamorphic rock. .

Storyline Narrative:

Students begin by asking questions  about the cause for the large granite boulders found on the mountainside of Little Cottonwood Canyon. Then, student read to obtain information about the causes igneous rock formation.Students then work in small groups to determine the patterns in igneous rocks. Students make and record observations about rocks, how and where they form and the role of energy in their formation (melting and crystallization). Students develop a model to show how igneous rocks are formed, relating the role of energy flowing and matter cycling in this process (melting and crystallization). Students read to obtain information about uplift, and then glaciers and how the energy of a glacier can move very massive objects (matter) connecting weathering, erosion and deposition to this phenomenon. Then, students use evidence and reasoning to construct an explanation for the cause of the BIG igneous boulders at the mouth of Little Cottonwood Canyon and cite how energy is flowing and matter is cycling throughout these processes (crystallization and melting). Finally, Students construct a model of the entire rock cycle (connecting the three systems they have created, ie, sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous) to describe the relationship between energy flow and matter cycling that create igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Emphasize the processes of melting, crystallization, weathering deposition, sedimentation and deformation on Earth materials.

 

Episode 3

Engage

Question

Why are there boulders here?

Snapshot

Students ask questions about the cause for the large granite boulders found on the mountainside of Little Cottonwood Canyon.   

Conceptual Understandings

There are large, random boulders at the mouth of the canyon.

What causes igneous rocks to form?

How can such big rocks be moved (cause)?

Explore

Question

What are the patterns in igneous rocks?

Snapshot

Students work in small groups to determine the patterns in igneous rocks. Students make and record observations about igneous rocks, how and where they form and the role of energy in their formation (melting and crystallization).  

Conceptual Understandings

Intrusive rocks have large grains and a coarse texture.  Extrusive rocks have small grains, can be glassy, can have holes and be one color..

What causes igneous rocks to form? What are the parts of igneous systems?

Explain

Question

What causes igneous rocks to form? What are the parts of igneous systems?

Snapshot

Student read about how the causes igneous rock formation. Students develop a model to show how igneous rocks are formed relate the role of energy flowing and matter cycling in the processes related to volcanism (melting and crystallization).

Conceptual Understandings

Intrusive igneous rocks are formed from magma that cools slowly deep within the Earth. Extrusive igneous rocks are formed from lava that cools slowly on Earth’s surface..

What causes intrusive igneous rocks to be found on Earth's surface?

Elaborate

Question

What is the geothermal gradient  and how does it relate to metamorphic systems?

Snapshot

Students analyze and discuss the patterns in the data (geothermal gradient and pressure gradient) and the implications for this on deformation of existing earth materials below Earth’s surface.  Students use evidence gathered to develop a model of  how the relationship between energy flowing and mattering cycling create metamorphic rocks.  

Conceptual Understandings

The deeper down rock is in the Earth, the more heat and pressure can act on it and cause it to change.

What caused the bands in the FCC rocks?

Evaluate

Question

What caused the BIG igneous boulders at the mouth of Little Cottonwood Canyon?  How did they get there?

Snapshot

Students use evidence and reasoning to construct an explanation  for the cause of the BIG igneous boulders at the mouth of Little Cottonwood Canyon and  cite how energy is flowing and matter is cycling throughout these processes. Students construct final model of the rock cycle (connecting the three systems they have created, ie, sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous) to describe the relationship between energy flow and matter cycling that create igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

Conceptual Understandings

The boulders are made of intrusive igneous rock (quartz monzonite) that cooled and hardened deep beneath Earth's surface under a volcano.  Over time, the rock was uplifted and exposed,  the top layers eroded and the intrusive igneous rock was exposed.  When a glacier moved over the rock, a huge piece broke off, was carried down the mountainside by the glacier, and then left on the mountain-side when the glacier melted in the mouth of the canyon.