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Utah Science

Curriculum Consortium

Tyson Grover 

tgrover@dsdmail.net

Annette Nielson

afonnesbeck@dsdmail.net

1.3 Strand

Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating matter can make a sound.  Objects can only be seen when light is available to illuminate them. Some objects give off their own light.  Some materials allow light to pass through them, and still, others block light and create a dark shadow on the surface beyond them where the light cannot reach.  Mirrors can be used to redirect light. People use a variety of devices that may include sound and light to communicate over long distances.
STORYLINE: 1.3.1 Sound
 

Standard 1.3.1: Plan and carry out an investigation to show the cause and effect relationship between sound and vibrating matter. Emphasize that vibrating matter can make sound and that sound can make matter vibrate. (PS4.A)

Practices

Planning and Carrying Out 

Investigations Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to support explanations or design solutions.  Plan and conduct investigations collaboratively to produce evidence to answer a question.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.A: Wave Properties  

 

Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating matter can make sound

Cross Cutting Concepts

Cause and Effect  

 

Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.

Phenomena Statement

When the spoon on the string hits a hard object something interesting happens.

Storyline Narrative

Students will plan and carry out an investigation for the cause and effect of the sound heard by the metal spoon struck on a hard object. Students ask questions for cause and effect for what they noticed when the spoon is struck on different objects.  Students engage in argument from evidence for the cause and effect of different sounds produced by different materials hit against objects. Students construct explanations for the cause and effect of the sound produced when the spoon hits an object.

Students develop questions to investigate the cause of the rubber band making a sound.  Students plan an investigation to find evidence for the cause of the sound coming from the rubber band. Students construct an explanation for the cause of the sound made by the rubber band. Students communicate their explanation describing the cause (vibration) and effect (sound) in the rubber band.

 

Students plan an investigation to see how energy can cause the items on a drum to move without touching the items or drum.  Students will ask questions and define problems to cause the items to change from sitting to moving. Students construct an explanation for the cause of the items moving. Students will use a model to show a change for the drum vibrating because of sound.  Students communicate their explanation describing how the change caused the drum to vibrate.

 

Students see a picture of a gong and then construct an explanation for the cause]of a sound coming from the gong.

 
STORYLINE: 1.3.2-1.3.3 Light

Standard 1.3.2: Use a model to show the effect of light on objects. Emphasize that objects can be seen when light is available to illuminate them or if they give off their own light. (PS4.B)

Standard 1.3.3: Plan and carry out an investigation to determine the effect of materials in the path of a beam of light. Emphasize that light can travel through some materials, can be reflected off some materials, and some materials block light causing shadows. Examples of materials could include clear plastic, wax paper, cardboard, or a mirror. (PS4.B)

Practices

Developing and Using Models Modeling in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to include using and developing models (i.e., diagram, drawing, physical replica, diorama, dramatization, or storyboard) that represent concrete events or design solutions. 

 

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations 

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to support explanations or design solutions.  Plan and conduct investigations collaboratively to produce evidence to answer a question.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation  

Objects can be seen if light is available to illuminate them or if they give off their own light. 

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation  

Some materials allow light to pass through them, others allow only some light through and others block all the light and create a dark shadow on any surface beyond them, where the light cannot reach. Mirrors can be used to redirect a light beam. (Boundary: The idea that light travels from place to place is developed through experiences with light sources, mirrors, and shadows, but no attempt is made to discuss the speed of light.)

 

Cross Cutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.

Phenomena Statement

 I put a night light in my bathroom at home because at night it is completely dark and I couldn’t see anything.

Storyline Narrative

In this storyline, we start by engaging students with the phenomenon. I put a night light in my bathroom at home because at night it is completely dark and I couldn’t see anything. Students will explore this phenomenon by developing questions and investigating why it is hard to see in the dark. Students will investigate how different amounts of light affect what they see. Students will then construct explanations using evidence from their investigation. Students will then use a model to communicate how light affects what we see. 

To elaborate, students look at a new phenomenon, I can make puppet shadows on the wall with my hands if someone holds a flashlight and points it at my hands. Students develop questions to investigate shadow puppets.  Students investigate different materials and use their data to construct explanations for how different materials affect a beam of light. Students evaluate their understanding by  creating model to communicate how different materials affect the path of light. 

 

Students then are assessed on what they have learned by how well they are able to use  the core ideas in a design challenge, create a shadow puppet show that includes color. Students will write and create their own shadow puppet show and use the core ideas learned about light to explain how they are able to create the show.

STORYLINE: 1.3.2-1.3.3 Light
STORYLINE: 1.3.4 Communicating with Light and Sound

Standard 1.3.4 Design a device in which the structure of the device uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance. Define the problem by asking questions and gathering information, convey designs through sketches, drawings, or physical models, and compare and test designs. Examples of devices could include a light source to send signals, paper-cup-and-string telephones, or a pattern of drum beats. (PS4.C, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)

Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions 

 

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to the use of evidence and ideas in constructing evidence-based accounts of natural phenomena and designing solutions.  Use tools and materials provided to design a device that solves a specific problem.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation  

 

People also use a variety of devices to communicate (send and receive information) over long distance

 

Cross Cutting Concepts

Structure and Function

 

 The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s)

 I put a night light in my bathroom at home because at night it is completely dark and I couldn’t see anything.

Phenomena Statement

A car pulls over when an ambulance drives by.

Storyline Narrative

To begin the 1.3.4 storyline, students will be engaged in the phenomenon cars pull over when an ambulance drives by. Students will define the problem and what is causing the cars to pull over. Students then obtain information about different devices and their function, to communicate using light and/or sound. Then they construct explanations about how different devices function to communicate over distances. Students discuss what some of the advantages and disadvantages are to each design. They use this information to construct explanations about the patterns of when light and sound are used to communicate information over a distance. 


Students then are given a design challenge to send a message over a distance. Students define a problem where information is not getting to another because of distance. They then determine what are the criteria and constraints for this problem. Students then design a solution to the problem they have defined. Students then develop a model of their solution's structure that uses light or sound to communicate a message over a distance. Students then develop an argument for how their structure is a solution to the problem they defined. Students finally communicate their argument for their solution by presenting their device to the class.