The motion of objects can be observed and described. Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of an object’s motion and can start or stop it. Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and different directions. A bigger push or pull makes things go faster and when objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
Standard K.3.1: Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of forces on the motion of an object. Emphasize forces as a push and pull on an object. The idea of strength should be kept separate from the idea of direction. Non-contact forces, such as magnets and static electricity, will be taught in Grades 3 through 5. (PS2.A, PS2.B, PS2.C, PS3.C)
Standard K.3.2: Analyze data to determine how a design solution causes a change in the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull. Define the problem by asking questions and gathering information, convey designs through sketches, drawings, or physical models, and compare and test designs. Examples of problems requiring a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain distance, follow a particular path, or knock down other objects. (PS2.A, PS2.B, PS2.C, PS3.C, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to support explanations or design solutions.
Make observations (firsthand or from media) to collect data that can be used to make comparisons.
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to the use of evidence and ideas in constructing evidence-based accounts of natural phenomena and designing solutions.
Use tools and materials provided to design and build a device that solves a specific problem or a solution to a specific problem.
Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A: Forces and Motion
Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
PS2.B: Types of Interactions
When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
PS2. C: Stability and Instability in Physical Systems
Whether an object stays still or moves often depends on the effects of multiple pushes and pulls on it.
PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces
A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly (secondary).
Cross Cutting Concepts
Cause and Effect: Events have causes that generate observable patterns.
This tells the story of what will happen in the classroom and why students will explore the presented phenomenon. It contains descriptions of the student performances (SEP) and how they are being asked to frame their thinking (CCC).
Students observe the phenomenon that a shopping cart can move different ways.
Students begin by observing the phenomena of a door opening and closing. Students then plan and carry out an investigation to see what causes a variety of objects from the classroom to move. Next, students take the observations from the investigation to find patterns in what causes the movements by sorting the movements into pushes and pulls. Students also read an article to evaluate their patterns. Students communicate information about what causes objects to move by coloring boxes to indicate a push or a pull and completing a sentence frame.
Next, students consider the phenomena of a scooter returning home faster than another scooter and wonder why objects move at different speeds. Students plan and carry out an investigation to find what causes objects to move at different speeds. Next, students take their findings from the investigation and analyze the data to find that stronger forces cause faster speeds and softer forces cause slower speeds. Lastly, students communicate information about what causes objects to move at different speeds by completing a cause and effect table and circling words that best complete cause and effect statements. In addition, students have the option to record a video that explains what causes objects to move at different speeds.
Students begin by observing a ball hitting a bat showing that when an object collides with another object it changes the direction of the object. Students will plan and carry out an investigation to show how to change the direction of a soccer ball. They will explain the causes of a soccer ball changing direction. They will communicate the changing direction of a soccer ball by drawing a diagram.
Students will design a solution to create a mini-golf hole. They will then test the solution to get the golf ball into the hole. They will analyze their design by drawing a diagram of the speed and direction their golf ball went to get into the hole. Then they will try another groups designed mini-golf course hole and draw a diagram to show the speed and direction of the golf ball to get into the hole.