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Utah Science

Curriculum Consortium

Tyson Grover 

tgrover@dsdmail.net

Annette Nielson

afonnesbeck@dsdmail.net

Storyline Narrative 6.2.2

Storyline continued from 6.2.1

SEEd Standard 6.2.2 asks students to develop a model to predict the effect of heat energy on states of matter and density. Students should emphasize the arrangement of particles in each state of matter and during phase changes.

 

Students engage by observing solid, liquid, and gaseous substances to understand how the structure of the molecules in each state of matter determines many of its properties. Students classify substances into the different states of matter based on the behavior of the molecules in each substance. Students reason that the structure of the molecules in a substance determine its properties. Students ask questions how substances can change from one state of matter to another.

 

Students explore by observing patterns in a system in which energy is added to different states of matter. Students will develop models to show how energy changes the states of matter. Students are asked the question “what is heat?” As students construct explanations to describe heat, they are presented with a phenomenon of toothpicks connected by wax to a metal rod.

 

Students are asked to explain what caused the toothpicks to drop off the spoon in order as a flame was held on the opposite end of the spoon. Students will model the movement of molecules in each part of the system when heat energy is added. Students learn that molecules are always moving and heat energy causes the molecules to move faster and collide with other molecules. This causes the molecules of a substance to spread out.

 

Students then investigate and elaborate on how heat energy affects the density of substances. By observing hot water floating on cold water, students reason that heat energy causes the molecules of a substance to speed up and spread apart which will lower the density of that substance. Students ask questions about what happens when heat is removed from a system. Students are presented with a variety of systems in which heat energy is both added and removed, including melting, evaporating, condensing, and freezing.


Students are evaluated as they model heat energy as it flows in and out of each system to show that heat energy always flows from high energy to low energy and its effect on matter.

Conceptual Understandings

The molecules in solids, liquids, and gases are arranged and behave in different ways. This arrangement causes the objects to have certain characteristics, including different densities. Molecules constantly move and vibrate more freely depending on which state it is in.

How do substances change from a solid to a liquid or liquid to a gas?

Snapshot

Students observe a solid, liquid, and gaseous substance and record the characteristics of each. Students reason about the relationship between the characteristics of the different types of matter and what they know about the behavior of atoms and molecules. Students construct models to represent and explain the molecular structure of a solid, liquid, and gaseous substance.

Episode 4

Question

How are molecules organized in the states of matter?

 

Episode 5

Question

How do substances change from a solid to a liquid or liquid to a gas?

Snapshot

Student will observe patterns in a system in which energy is added to different states of matter. Students will develop models to show the changes in the states of matter.

Conceptual Understandings

Matter changes state according to the total heat energy within the system.

How do substances change from a solid to a liquid or liquid to a gas?

 

Conceptual Understandings

Molecules are always moving. Heat energy causes molecules to vibrate and collide with other molecules. More energy equals more movement. This causes a change in the amount of molecules in a given space.

How does heat affect the density of molecules?

Snapshot

Students reason about the behavior of molecules in changing states of matter at a scale we cannot observe. Students model the movement of molecules in each of the states of matter when heat energy is added.

Episode 6

Question

What is heat?

 

Episode 7

Question

How does heat affect the density of molecules?

Snapshot

Students observe and model how the density of a substance changes when heat is added.

Conceptual Understandings

Heat causes the density of a substance to change by speeding up the molecules and causing them to spread slightly apart.

What happens when heat is removed from a system?

 

Conceptual Understandings

Increases and decreases in energy cause changes in the arrangement and behavior of molecules in each state of matter. Heat always flows from high energy to low energy.

What factors affect how energy is transferred?

Snapshot

Students model and explain how increases and decreases in heat energy cause changes in the states of matter. Students will track heat energy as it flows in and out of a system to model the changes in the structure of the unobservable molecules.

Episode 8

Question

What happens when heat is removed from a system?