Site Feedback

Utah Science

Curriculum Consortium

Tyson Grover 

tgrover@dsdmail.net

Annette Nielson

afonnesbeck@dsdmail.net

Standard 7.4.1
 

Develop and use a model to explain the effect that different types of reproduction have on genetic variation, including asexual and sexual reproduction.

Practices

Developing and using models

  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms   

  • Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. (secondary)

 

LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits

  • Variations of inherited traits between parent and offspring arise from genetic differences that result from the subset of chromosomes (and therefore genes) inherited.


LS3.B: Variation of Traits  

  • In sexually reproducing organisms, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired (at random) by the offspring. Individuals have two of each chromosome and hence two alleles of each gene, one acquired from each parent. These versions may be identical or may differ from each other

Cross Cutting Concepts

Cause and effect: mechanism and explanation

  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural systems.

Sexual reproduction produces genetic variation.

Big Idea
Standard 7.4.2
 

Obtain, evaluate and communicate information about specific animal and plant adaptations and structures that affect the probability of successful reproduction.  Examples of adaptations could include nest building to protect young from cold, herding of animals to protect young from predators, vocalization of animals and colorful plumage to attract mates for breeding, bright flowers attracting butterflies that transfer pollen, flower nectar and odors that attract insects that transfer pollen, and hard shells on nuts that squirrels bury.

Practices

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

  • Gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used, and describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms  

  • Animals engage in characteristic behaviors that increase the odds of reproduction.  Plants reproduce in a variety of ways, sometimes depending on animal behavior and specialized features for reproduction.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Structure and function

  • Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function.

Big Idea

Specific adaptations and structures affect the probability of survival to reproduction.

 
Standard 7.4.3

Develop and use a model to describe why genetic mutations may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism. Emphasize  the conceptual idea that changes to traits can happen. Specific changes of genes at the molecular level, mechanisms for protein synthesis or specific types of mutations will be introduced at the high school level.

Practices

Developing and using models

  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits

  • Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

  • In addition to variations that arise from sexual reproduction, genetic information can be altered because of mutations. Though rare, mutations may result in changes to the structure and function of proteins. Some changes are beneficial, others harmful, and some neutral to the organism.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Structure and function

  • Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function.

Big Idea

Mutations can be harmful, neutral, or beneficial.

Standard 7.4.4
 

Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the technologies that have changed the way humans affect the inheritance of desired traits in organisms. Analyze data from tests or simulations to determine the best solution to achieve success in cultivating selected desired traits in organisms. Examples could include artificial selection, genetic modification, animal husbandry, and gene therapy.

Practices

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

  • Gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used, and describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.B: Natural Selection  

  • In artificial selection, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms by selective breeding. One can choose desired parental traits determined by genes, which are then passed onto offspring.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Cause and effect: mechanism and explanation

  • Phenomena may have more than one cause, and some cause and effect relationships in systems can only be described using probability.

Big Idea

Humans use technologies to select desired traits in organisms.