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Utah Science

Curriculum Consortium

Tyson Grover 

tgrover@dsdmail.net

Annette Nielson

afonnesbeck@dsdmail.net

Standard 8.1.1
Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

  • Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Scale, proportion and quantity

  • Time, space, and energy phenomena can be    observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small.

Big Idea
  • Matter can be broken down into smaller and smaller pieces.

Practices

Developing and Using Models

  • Develop a model to predict and/or describe phenomena

Develop a model to describe the scale and proportion of atoms and molecules.  Emphasize developing atomic models of elements and their numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons, as well as models of simple molecules.  Topics like valence electrons, bond energy, ionic complexes, ions, and isotopes will be introduced at the high school level.

 
Big Idea
  • The properties of a material determine its uses.

Standard 8.1.2
Practices

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

  • Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings

Cross Cutting Concepts

Structure and function

  • Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter  

  • Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it.

Obtain information about various properties of matter, evaluate how different materials’ properties allow them to be used for particular functions in society and communicate your findings. Emphasize  general properties of matter. Examples could include color, density, flammability, hardness, malleability, odor, ability to rust, solubility, state, or the ability to react with water.

 
Practices

Planning and carrying out investigations

  • Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.

Analyzing and interpreting data

  • Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings.

Plan and conduct an investigation and then analyze and interpret the data to identify patterns in changes in a substance's properties to determine whether a chemical reaction has occurred. Examples could include changes in properties such as color, density, flammability, odor, solubility, or state.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions  

  • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants

Cross Cutting Concepts

Patterns

  • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of microscopic and atomic level structure.

Standard 8.1.3
Big Idea
  • A substance’s properties change during chemical reactions.

 
Practices

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

  • Gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used, and describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence.

Big Idea
  • Synthetic (man-made) materials are made from natural resources.

Standard 8.1.4
Cross Cutting Concepts

Structure and function

  • Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter  

  • Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it.

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions  

  • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.

Obtain and evaluate information to describe how synthetic materials come from natural resources, what their functions are, and how society uses these new materials. Examples of synthetic materials could include medicine, foods, building materials, plastics, and alternative fuels.

 
Practices

Developing and using models/Using mathematics and computational thinking

  • Develop a model using mathematical representations to illustrate relationships between energy and matter.

Develop a model that uses computational thinking to illustrate cause and effect relationships in particle motion, temperature, density, and state of a pure substance when heat energy is added or removed. Emphasize molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show how adding or removing heat energy can result in phase changes and focus on calculating density of a substance’s state.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter  

  • Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other.  

  • In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact with others; in a gas, they are widely spaced except when they happen to collide. In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and may vibrate in position but do not change relative locations.  

  • The changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using these models of matter.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Cause and effect: mechanism and explanation

  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.

Standard 8.1.5
Big Idea
  • Heat energy changes the state of a substance.

 
Practices

Developing and Using Models

  • Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms.

Big Idea
  • In a chemical reaction the mass of the reactants is equal to the mass of the products

Standard 8.1.6
Cross Cutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

  • Matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions  

  • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.  

  • The total number of each type of atom is conserved, and thus the mass does not change.

Develop a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction, indicating that matter is conserved. Emphasize demonstrations of an understanding of the law of conservation of matter. Balancing equations and stoichiometry will be learned  at the high school level.

 
Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

  • Apply scientific ideas or principles to design, construct, and test a design of an object, tool, process or system.

Design, construct, and test a device that can affect the rate of phase change.  Compare and identify the best characteristics of competing devices and modify them based on data analysis to improve the device to better meet the criteria for success.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem  

  • The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful.

  • Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions.

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions  

  • A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it.

  • There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

  • The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system.

Standard 8.1.7
Big Idea
  • Heat energy transfer affects the rate of a phase change.