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Utah Science

Curriculum Consortium

Tyson Grover 

tgrover@dsdmail.net

Annette Nielson

afonnesbeck@dsdmail.net

Standard 6.2.1
 

Develop models to show that molecules are made of different kinds, proportions and quantities of atoms. Emphasize understanding that there are differences between atoms and molecules, and that certain combinations of atoms form specific molecules. Examples of simple molecules could include water (H2O), atmospheric oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2).

Practices

Developing and Using Models

  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

  • Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms.

  • Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with repeating subunits (e.g., crystals).

Cross Cutting Concepts

Proportion and Quantity

  • Time, space, and energy phenomena can be observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small.

Big Idea

Atoms combine to form specific molecules and makes up all matter.

Standard 6.2.2
 

Develop a model to predict the effect of thermal energy on states of matter and density. Emphasize the arrangement of particles in states of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) and during phase changes (melting, freezing, condensing, and evaporating). „

Practices

Developing and Using Models

  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter  

  • Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other. Widely spaced (gas), closely spaced (liquid), static (solid)    

  • The changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using these models of matter.

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy  

  • The term “heat” as used in everyday language refers both to thermal energy (the motion of atoms or molecules within a substance) and the transfer of that energy.

  • The temperature of a system is proportional to the average internal kinetic energy and potential energy per atom or molecule.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.

Big Idea

Addition or removal of thermal energy causes matter to change state.

Standard 6.2.3
 

Plan and carry out an investigation to determine the relationship between temperature, the amount of heat transferred, and the change of average particle motion in various types or amounts of matter. Emphasize recording and evaluating data, and communicating the results of the investigation.

Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

  • Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy  

  • Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer  

  • The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

  • Energy may take different forms (e.g. energy in fields, thermal energy, energy of motion).

  • The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system.

Big Idea

Adding or removing thermal energy changes the state of matter.

Standard 6.2.4
 

Design an object, tool, or process that minimizes or maximizes the transfer of thermal energy. Identify criteria and constraints, develop a prototype for iterative testing, analyze data from testing, and propose modifications for optimizing the design solution. Emphasize demonstrating how the structure of differing materials allows them to function as either conductors or insulators.

Practices

Designing Solutions

  • Apply scientific ideas or principles to design, construct, and test a design of an object, tool, process or system.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

  • Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms.

  • Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with repeating subunits (e.g., crystals).

Cross Cutting Concepts

Structure and Function

  • Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.

Big Idea

Heat transfer can be maximized or minimized by different types of materials.