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Utah Science

Curriculum Consortium

Tyson Grover 

tgrover@dsdmail.net

Annette Nielson

afonnesbeck@dsdmail.net

Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

  • Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

  • Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to identify linear and nonlinear relationships.

Big Idea
  • Speed and Mass affect the amount of kinetic energy an object has.

  • Which would do more damage in a crash, a semi truck or a smart car?

Standard 8.2.1
Cross Cutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

  • Proportional relationships (e.g. speed as the ratio of distance traveled to time taken) among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties and processes.

Cause and Effect

  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy  

  • Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed.

Use Computational thinking to analyze data about the relationship between the mass and speed of objects and the relative amount of kinetic energy of the objects.  Emphasis should be on the quantity of mass and relative speed to the observable effects of the kinetic energy.  Examples could include a full cart vs.an empty cart or rolling spheres with different masses down a ramp to measure the effects on stationary masses.  Calculations of kinetic and potential energy will be learned at the high school level.

 
Standard 8.2.2
 

Ask questions about how the amount of potential energy varies as distance within the system changes. Plan and conduct an investigation to answer a question about potential energy. Emphasize comparing relative amounts of energy. Examples could include a cart at varying positions on a hill or an object being dropped from different heights. Calculations of kinetic and potential energy will be learned at the high school level.

Practices

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

  • Ask questions about potential energy within a system

Planning and Carrying out Investigations

  • Plan an investigation, in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy  

  • A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

  • The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system.

Big Idea
  • The height a ball is dropped from determines the height it will bounce back up.

  • How does the height of the hill on a roller coaster affect the cart speed?

Standard 8.2.3
 

Engage in argument to identify the strongest evidence to support the claim that the kinetic energy of an object changes as energy is transferred to or from the object. Examples could include observing temperature changes as a result of friction, applying force to an object, or releasing potential energy from an object.

Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

  • Construct, use, and present oral and written arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer  

  • When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

  • Energy may take different forms (e.g. energy in fields, thermal energy, energy of motion).

Big Idea
  • The kinetic energy of an object changes as energy is transferred to or from the object.

  • What happens to the kinetic energy of a scooter (snowboard, bicycle etc) when various forces are applied?

Standard 8.2.4
 

Use computational thinking to describe a simple model for waves that shows the pattern of wave amplitude being related to wave energy. Emphasize describing waves with both quantitative and qualitative thinking. Examples could include using graphs, charts, computer simulations, or physical models to demonstrate amplitude and energy correlation.

Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

  • Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions and design solutions.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.A: Wave Properties  

  • A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Systems and system models

  • Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions – such as inputs, processes, and outputs – and energy and matter flows within systems

Patterns

  • Graphs and charts can be used to identify patterns in data.

Big Idea
  • The amplitude of a wave is related to the wave energy.

  • What makes some sounds louder than others (lights brighter than others)?

Standard 8.2.5
 

Develop and use a model to describe the structure of waves and how they are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. Emphasize both light and mechanical waves. Examples could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions of light waves through a prism, mechanical waves through gas vs. liquids vs. solids; or sound waves through different mediums.

Practices

Developing and Using Models

  • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.A: Wave Properties  

  • A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted.

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation  

  • When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light.  

  • The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends.  

  • A wave model of light is useful for explaining brightness, color, and the frequency-dependent bending of light at a surface between media.

  • However, because light can travel through space, it cannot be a matter wave, like sound or water waves.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Structure and Function

  • Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.

Big Idea
  • The structure of a wave affects it's ability to be reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through mediums.

  • How are reflection, absorption and transmission of light waves through a medium involved in the creation of a rainbow?

Standard 8.2.6
 

Obtain and evaluate information to communicate the claim that the structure of digital signals are a more reliable way to store or transmit information than analog signals. Emphasize the basic understanding that waves can be used for communication purposes. Examples could include using vinyl record vs. digital song files, film cameras vs digital cameras, or alcohol thermometers vs. digital thermometers.

Practices

Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information

  • Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information in written text with that contained in media and visual displays to clarify claims and findings.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation  

  • Digitized signals (sent as wave pulses) are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information.

Cross Cutting Concepts

Structure and Function

  • Structures can be designed to serve particular functions.

Big Idea
  • Digital signals are a more reliable way to store or transmit information than analog signals.

  • Why can a cd (or hard drive?) hold so many more songs than a vinyl record even though a record is larger?